In other words, we consider the relationship between \(X\) and \(Y\) just and totally disregard \(Z\)

In other words, we consider the relationship between \(X\) and \(Y\) just and totally disregard \(Z\) Our conclusions derive from the subsequent evidence: the chi-squared reports prices (elizabeth.g., \(X^2, G^2\)) are very big (age.g., \(X^2=, df=5\)), and also the p-value is basically zero, indicating that B and S are not independent of D. The expected…